Biblical Theological Seminary

1988 Summer Theological Institute

Dr. Robert C. Newman




Some Statistics


            About 25% of OT quotations in NT from Psalms, though book makes up only about 10% of OT in length

            Acc to UBS Greek New Testament (3rd ed):

                        79 quotations of Pss in NT

                        335 allusions or verbal parallels to Pss in NT

            Quotations from 39 different Pss:

                        118 and 110 most frequent (12x and 11x),

                        then Ps 69 (5x), Pss 2, 22, 95 (4x each)

            Quotations in 11 NT books, most Heb (17), Rom (14), Acts (11)

            Allusions from 96 different Pss,

                        Ps 22 most frequent (20x),

                        then Pss 2, 69, 110 (14x each)

            Allusions in 23 NT books, most in Rev (98), Lk (39), Mt (28), Acts (26), Heb (23)


Types of Quotations


            Fulfillment (c30x) ‑ predicts events future to psalmist

            Confirmation (c25x) ‑ to validate theological point

            Exhortation (c4x) ‑ to motivate proper action

            Exegesis (c3x) ‑ extended discussion explaining

            Biblical Language (1‑2x?) ‑ language used differently

            Puzzling (c3x) ‑ not obvious why passage used as it is


Some Details on Quotations




            Fulfilled by time NT writer uses passage


                        Ps 16:8‑11 (not abandoned to decay) in Ac 2:25‑31

                                    Peter at Pentecost re/ Jesus

                        16:10 (ditto) in Ac 13:35

                                    Paul at Pisidian Antioch re/ Jesus

                        22:1 (My God, my God...) in Mt 27:46 = Mk 14:24

                                    Jesus' words from cross

                        22:18 (divide garments, cast lots) in Jn 19:24

                                    occurred at Jesus' crucifixion

                        40:6‑8 (sacrifice not desired) in Hb 10:5‑7

                                    Christ as replacement for animal offerings

                        110:1 (sit at right hand) in Ac 2:34‑35

                                    applied to Jesus by Peter at Pentecost

                        118:22‑3 (stone builders rejected) in Ac 4:11, 1P 2:7

                                    applied to Jesus by Peter

                        118:25‑26 (blessed is He who comes) in Mt 21:9

                                    =Mk 11:9‑10 = Lk 19:38 = Jn 12:13

                                    crowds re/ Jesus at triumphal entry


            Generic: predicting a class of events


                        Ps 2:1‑2 (why do nations rage?) in Ac 4:25‑26

                                    applied to trial & death of Jesus

                        8:2 (perfect praise from infants) in Mt 21:16

                                    Jesus re/ his triumphal entry

                        22:22 (declare your name to brothers) in Hb 2:12

                                    Jesus not ashamed to call believers "brothers"

                        31:5 (into hands commit spirit) in Lk 23;46

                                    Jesus on cross

                        35:19 (hated me w/o cause) in Jn 15:25

                                    Jesus applies to self

                        41:9 (even my close friend) in Jn 13:18

                                    Jesus applies to Judas

                        44:22 (considered sheep for slaughter) in Rm 8:36

                                    persecution of God's people

                        69:4 (hated me w/o cause) in Jn 15:25 (cp Ps 35:19)

                                    Jesus applies to self

                        69:9 (zeal for house consumes me) in Jn 2:17

                                    disciples apply to Jesus

                        69:9 (insults to You fall on me) in Rm 15:3

                                    Paul applies to Jesus

                        69:22‑3 (table become snare) in Rm 11:9‑10

                                    Paul applies to Jews

                        69:25 (place to be deserted) in Ac 1:20

                                    Peter applies to Judas

                        78:2 (open mouth in parables) in Mt 13:35

                                    Matthew applies to Jesus

                        109:8 (days be few, another take office) in Ac 1:20

                                    Peter applies to Judas

                        112:9 (scattered gifts to poor) in 2C 9:9

                                    believers have gifts to give to others


            Interpretive: additional revelation re/ application


                        Ps 2:7 (you are My Son) in Ac 13:33

                                    Paul says fulf by raising Jesus

                        2:7 (ditto) in Hb 1:5

                                    God spoke to Jesus, time unspecified

                        2:7 (ditto) in Hb 5:5

                                    God appointing Jesus to high priesthood

                        132:11 (LORD swore oath to David) Ac 2:30

                                    Peter says David knew this in predicting resurrection of Messiah


            Future: still to be fulfilled when spoken/written


                        8:4‑6 (what is man?) in Hb 2:6‑8

                                    applied to Jesus as accomplishing this for us

                        8:6 (ditto) in 1C 15:27

                                    applied to Jesus eschatologically

                        110:1 (sit at right hand) in Mt 26:64 = Mk 14:62 = Lk 22:69

                                    Jesus' claim before Sanhedrin

                        118:22‑3 (stone builders rejected) in Mt 21:42 = Mk 12:10‑1 = Lk 20:17

                                    Jesus applies to self at end Parable of Tenants

                        118:25‑6 (blessed He who comes) in Mt 23:39 & Lk 13:35

                                    Jesus calling on Jews to repent




            Ps 19:4 (voice to all earth) in Rm 10:18

                        Did they not hear? Yes!

            22:22 (declare your name) in Hb 2:12

                        Jesus not ashamed to call believers "brothers"

            24:1 (earth is Lord's & all in it) in 1C 10:26

                        OK to eat food sold in marketplace

            32:1‑2 (blessed whose sins forgiven) in Rm 4:7‑8

                        Paul arguing on grace vs works

            44:22 (considered sheep for slaughter) in Rm 8:36

                        Persecution will be frequent

            45:6‑7 (Your throne, O God) in Hb 1:8‑9

                        Applied to Jesus showing deity

            51:4 (God proved right when judging) in Rm 3:4

                        Let God be true

            78:24 (rained down manna) in Jn 6:31

                        Jews quoting re/ work of Moses

            82:6 (you are gods) in Jn 10:34

                        Jesus in response to charge of blasphemy

            91:11‑12 (angels bear up) in Mt 4:6 = Lk 4:10‑1

                        Satan in tempting Jesus to jump

            95:7‑11 (today if you will hear ... never enter rest)

                        in Heb 3:7‑4:7 ‑ exegesis as part of exhortation

            104:4 (winds his messengers) in Hb 1:7

                        inferiorty of angels to Son

            110:1 (LORD says to my Lord) in Mt 22:44 = Mk 12:36 =

                        Lk 20:42‑43 ‑ Jesus re/ dignity of Messiah

            110:4 (priest forever like Melch) in Hb 5:6

                        applied to Jesus

            110:4 (ditto) in Hb 7:7

                        priest forever

            110:4 (ditto) in Hb 7:21

                        priest by God's oath


Catenas: (special case) string of quotations


            Rm 3:10‑15 using Pss 5:9; 10:7; 14:1‑3; 36:1; 53:1‑3; 140:3, plus Eccl & Isa re/ universal sin of mankind

            Rm 15:9‑12 using Pss 18:49; 117:1, plus 2 Sam, Deut, Isa re/ Gentiles praising God

            1C 3:19‑20 using Ps 94:11 and Jb 5:13 re/ God's wisdom vs man's




            Ps 4:4 (in anger do not sin) in Ep 4:25

                        Paul re/ handling one's anger

            34:12‑6 (whoever loves life) in 1P 3:10‑2

                        Peter on holy living

            95:7‑11 (today if hear His voice) in Hb 3:7‑4:7

                        Author of Heb re/ danger of apostasy

            118:6 (LORD w/ me, not afraid) in Hb 13;6

                        Author of Heb re/ Lord's presence




            Ps 40:6‑8 (sacr & offering not desired) in Hb 10:5‑7

                        Christ as real sacrifice that animal offerings foreshadowed

            95:7‑11 (today if hear His voice) in Hb 3:7‑4:7

                        exegetical exhortation on danger of apostasy

            110:1‑4 (priest like Melchizedek) in Hb, esp chap 7

                        Jesus as king‑priest forever


Biblical Language


            89:20 (I have found David) in Ac 13:22

                        Paul in sermon (homiletical language?)

                        [this seems to be more common in allusions]


Puzzling Cases


            68:18 (ascended, received gifts from men) in Ep 4:8

                        applied to Christ giving gifts to men [Hebrew b looks more like "by" or "with" men than "from" men]

            102:25‑27 (heavens will perish, You remain) in Hb 1:10‑2

                        on what basis applied to Jesus?  [assumes readers accept Deity and Creatorhood of Jesus?]

            116:10 (I believed, so I said, I am greatly afflicted) in 2C 4:13  

                        Paul app uses differently  [Biblical language?]